Spinal Decompression

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What is spinal decompression?
Spinal decompression surgery is a surgerydone to relieve symptoms which are caused by pressure,compression on the spinal cord.

What are the common techniques for decompression?
Disectomy
This involves removing a portion of a disk to relieve pressure on the nearby nerve roots.

Laminectomy
Small part of the bony arches of the spinal canal is called the lamina. During a laminectomy, the entire lamina is removed. The size of the spinal canal is increased as the lamina is removed, relieving pressure.

Foraminectomy
The procedure is performed to expand the openings for the nerve roots to exit the spinal cord by removing some bone and other tissue. It is a procedure that removes large amount of tissues and bones.

Osteophyte Removal
This involves removing bony growths called osteophytes or bone spurs.

Corpectomy
This is surgery to remove the body of a vertebra, as well as the disks.

A combination of techniques may be used; and in some cases, fusion of the vertebrae also is needed.

What leads to spinal decompression?

  • significant pain, weakness, or numbness in your leg or foot
  • leg pain worse than back pain
  • not improved with physical therapy or medication
  • difficulty walking or standing that affects your quality of life

What are diagnose?

  • MRI
  • CT
  • Mlyleogram

What are the recent advances in spinal decompression?
Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery

  • Rhizotomy- Rhizotomy is the cutting of nerve roots as they enter the spinal cord. Rhizotomyis a treatment for spasticity (involuntary muscle contraction) that is unresponsive to less invasive procedures. This procedure is performed under general anesthesia. The patient lies face down. At the center the spinal cord, an incision is made along the lower spine, exposing the sensory nerve roots. Individual nerve rootlets are electrically stimulated. Those that stimulate muscle movement are cut.
  • KyphoplastyorVertebroplasty – In vertebroplasty, bone cement is injected into fractured vertebrae to stabilize the spine and relieve pain.it treats vertrebral compression fractures.

Cervical Disc Replacement – intractable neck and/or arm pain,herniated discs or bony spurs(osteopytes)
Neck Trauma – fractures/dislocations.

Minimal Access Lumbar Surgery

  • Disectomy or decompression – conventional disectomy or micro disectomy done.Herniated disc is removed in conventional disectomy.
  • Interbody Fusion – conventional or combined fusion technique
  • Pedicle screw instrumentation - Placement of pedicle screws within the thoracic and lumbar spine for the treatment of spinal deformities.

What are future biomaterials for spinal implants?
Future Biomaterials for Spinal Implants:

  • Titanium
  • Bone Graft
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP)
  • Ceramic and Carbon Fiber
  • Plastics and Polymers
  • Disc Replacement or Disc Regeneration

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